The recommended method of using Gmail accounts in Outlook is to use IMAP. However, this only syncs email, not your Gmail calendar and contacts. If you don't have a Google apps account you'll need to use a utility to sync your Gmail calendar and contacts to Outlook. See Google Calendar Sync Utility for sync options to replace the Google Calendar sync utility that was discontinued August 1, 2014.
You need to configure the account settings online to allow IMAP (and/or POP3) at Gmail settings. This needs configured only the first time you use Gmail. You need to use Allow less secure apps if you don't use 2-factor authentication, but 2-factor may need an app password if your version of Outlook doesn't ask for the second authentication. Proper support for 2-factor was added to Outlook 365 in Fall 2018.
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Configure the account
If you let Outlook configure your Gmail account, it will set it up as IMAP. If you don't want to use IMAP you'll need to configure the account manually.
To configure Gmail accounts for POP3, use
Incoming mail server: pop.gmail.com
Outgoing server name (SMTP): smtp.gmail.com
Use the following settings for IMAP:
Incoming server name: imap.gmail.com
Outgoing server name (SMTP): smtp.gmail.com
Use your full Gmail address, including @gmail.com or @your_domain.com as the username. If you enabled two-factor verification on your Gmail account, you need to use an app password in Outlook. See "Using Outlook with 2-step verification" for more information.
If you don't use two-factor authorization on your Gmail account, you need to Allow less secure apps in Gmail settings at the end of the Gmail Security options page. See Gmail in Outlook: unable to connect to email for more details.
In More Settings, Advanced tab, set the Incoming server to use SSL encryption. This will automatically change the port to 995 for POP3 or port 993 for IMAP. The Outgoing server supports a couple of options.
If you use Outlook 2016 (or another client that support STARTTLS) use STARTTLS and port 25, otherwise use port 587 and TLS encryption.
On the Outgoing Server tab, select My outgoing server (SMTP) requires authentication and Use the same settings as my incoming mail server.
Note: this screenshot is from Outlook 2016; options on the lower half of the dialog in other versions will vary.
Setting a Sent Items folder
Beginning with Outlook 2007, you can choose a Sent folder for your IMAP accounts. While there is no problem using a folder on the IMAP server with most IMAP accounts, you DO NOT want to save a copy of sent items in the Gmail folders. Saving a copy in the Gmail folders will result in two copies of Sent Messages. If you use Gmail's SMTP server, Gmail will put a sent copy in the [Gmail]/Sent Mail folder automatically.
Either configure Outlook to not save sent copies of the Gmail mail or Save it in your local sent folder. Saving a copy locally will result in two copies of the sent message (one local and one saved by gmail online), but this is necessary if you use BCC and later want to check who a message was sent to.
Outlook 2013 and newer
Beginning with Outlook 2013, you cannot choose the Sent folder; Outlook asks the IMAP server which folder it should use. If the server supports XLIST or enhanced-list, or Outlook can match a folder on the server to it's folders by name, sent items will be stored in the Sent folder on the server, otherwise they will be in the local Sent Items folder.
Messages sent through the Gmail account will sync down to Outlook on the next sync, or when you open the Sent folder.
Setting a Deleted Items folder
Outlook 2010 introduced the ability to save Deleted items on the IMAP server. As with sent items, this works fine for most account types but has unintended consequences with Gmail accounts.
The problem is with how Gmail manages email, using Labels instead of folders. Labels are converted to folders for IMAP access. Deleting a message removes all labels from the message, leaving the message in the [Gmail]/All Mail folder, which shows all messages, whether or not they are labeled. To delete a message from all folders, you will need to move it to the [Gmail]/Trash folder.
Moving deleted messages to your [Gmail]/Trash folder will delete the message in all folders. Deleting a message from the Trash folder deletes it permanently.
If you use Shift+Delete to permanently delete messages, they will be deleted in Outlook and from the account online, bypassing the Deleted items folder. They cannot be recovered.
Do not configure Outlook to empty deleted items on exit. It can take "forever" for Outlook to close when used with IMAP accounts. Gmail will keep deleted items for 30 days before deleting them permanently.
Subscribe to folders
You can control what folders are visible in your IMAP clients by subscribing or unsubscribing from IMAP folders.
Right click on any folder in your IMAP account and choose IMAP folders... to open the IMAP folders dialog. Click on the Query button to list all folders or type a few letters in the Query field then click Query to display only folders containing those letters.
Folders displayed with a small envelope icon are subscribed, those without the envelope are visible only using your server's web access.
Select a folder and click the Subscribe or Unsubscribe button to change it.
I do not recommend subscribing to the [Gmail]/All Mail folder. This duplicates all messages in the other folders and will double the size of your data file.
Note that the subscribed folder list is stored on the server and will apply to all devices you access using IMAP. You can't subscribe to all folders on your desktop computer and only the Inbox on your tablet or laptop.
Unsubscribe the All Mail folders
Do not enable Outlook's junk mail filter. Gmail's spam filters are generally better than Outlook's junk mail filter and using both can result in confusion.
Tools in the Spotlight
Do you need a solution to sync Outlook and Gmail Calendar and Contacts when Gmail ends ActiveSync? CompanionLink keeps Microsoft Outlook and your Google account synchronized. Make changes in Outlook and those will update your Google account. And vice versa. Set the auto-sync feature to automate the entire process. CompanionLink works with any Google, Gmail, or Google Apps account.
Sync Outlook using Sync2 for Microsoft Outlook without a server. Sync Microsoft Outlook with Google Calendar, and Android phone. Synchronize Microsoft Outlook between multiple PCs using an external USB device, shared network folder of FTP. Share Outlook Calendar with Google Calendars. Sync Outlook Calendar, Contacts and Tasks folders. Includes improved product installation process and first start user experience. The update comes with improved performance of the software. Try the new Sync2 2.86 version now.
Use AkrutoSync to synchronize your Outlook Contacts, Calendar, Tasks and Notes directly with any Android, iOS (iPhone or iPad) or Windows Phone devices. AkrutoSync runs on your computer, not in the cloud. The program works with the phone's built-in apps, so there are no additional apps to install on the phone. After the initial set-up, the program syncs automatically. It works over Wi-Fi or the Internet. Akruto syncs Outlook with unlimited number of phones and tablets even if they are different brands and operating systems. Synchronization history feature lets you restore data if you change or delete something inadvertently.
This utility synchronizes Outlook calendar entries to a designated Google calendar. It allows user to choose Outlook Profile, Mailbox and Calendar. It deletes old entries from Google calendar and updates new appointments. User can Setup Sync Frequency as Hourly, Daily, or Weekly. Uses .Net framework 4.5. Outlook 2007 and above are supported.
Software to sync Outlook Calendar appointments with Google Calendar events. Allows you to sync one-way with either Outlook or Google as master as well as 2way sync by last changed appointments/events. Option to schedule a sync at regular intervals.
CompanionLink for Mac keeps Outlook for Mac contacts, calendars, tasks, and categories synchronized with either a Google account, smartphone, or tablet. You can choose your destination in the Settings menu of the software. Two-way direct sync.
Contacts Sync - Synchronize Outlook Contacts with Gmail - Freeware and Pro version. 2way contacts sync, sync Outlook Categories, pictures, notes, sync by last changed contact, skip Outlook Category, sync Outlook Contacts to 2 Gmail accounts, Preview Sync with option to download entire Outlook/Gmail contact list as single CSV file and more.
EVO Collaborator for Outlook is a CardDAV and CalDAV add-in supporting 32- and 64-bit Outlook 2007 to 2013. Sync Outlook address books with CardDAV servers and calendars and tasks with CalDAV servers. Works with SabreDAV-based WebDAV servers, iCloud and Yahoo and AOL (in read only mode). Map Outlook's default address book, calendar or task within a CardDAV/CalDAV profile. Download EVO Collaborator for Outlook
GO Contact Sync Mod synchronizes your Microsoft Outlook contacts with your Google Mail address book, including pictures, categories and notes. Since version 3.5.6 it also syncs your Outlook Notes on demand to Google Drive. Since version 3.7.0 it also syncs your Outlook Calendar Appointments on demand to Google Calendar. This Mod fork adds many enhancements and bug fixes to the obviously dead project 'Go Contact Sync'.
gSyncit is an Outlook add-in that allows for two-way synchronization between Google and Outlook calendars, contacts, notes, and tasks with your Google account. In addition, gSyncit also supports synchronization between Outlook and Toodledo, Pocket Informant Online, Evernote, Dropbox, Simplenote and Nozbe. Version 3.6 and higher support Windows 8 and Outlook 2013. Supports Outlook 2010 and 2013 64-bit.
Sync Google calendars and contacts with Outlook. Requires yearly subscription.
Outlook Google Calendar Sync is completely free and syncs between any Outlook calendar and a Google calendar of your choice - either in a single direction or two-way. Attendees, reminders, free/busy attributes are all synced, events can be merged with existing if necessary, and even words in calendar subject's can be obfuscated if you have security concerns. Syncs can be configured on an automatic schedule, or simply upon request. It does not need to be installed (can just be unzipped) and works behind web proxies. Supports Outlook 2003 right through to Outlook 2016 64-bit!
Outlook4Gmail is a free Outlook add-in providing easy contacts synchronization of your Outlook and Gmail accounts and address books.This add-in uses these Outlook and Gmail contact details: Name, Company, Phones, Emails, Addresses, Dates, Persons, Notes, etc. You define the direction of synchronization/update: you can sync or update either the Outlook or the Gmail address book (one-way synchronization) or choose to update both accounts simultaneously (two-way synchronization). Paid version syncs Gmail calendar too.
Automatically synchronize your Outlook calendar and contacts with Google or iCloud. Access Outlook calendar and contacts on your Android phone or iPhone/iPad.