Android phones support "Exchange ActiveSync", or EAS, which allows the phones to sync "over-the-air" with mailboxes that use EAS.
At this time, Gmail, Hotmail and, of course, Exchange server (including Office 365) support EAS and will sync calendar, contacts, and tasks (if supported by the device) directly with the smartphone. Note that while Gmail can sync it's calendar and contacts with the phone using EAS, you will need to export your Outlook calendar and contacts to gmail or use a sync utility.
You can use a "Microsoft Account" (LiveID/passport) to sync calendar and contacts over-the-air. Create a Microsoft Account for your email address and set it up in Outlook using the Outlook Connector or EAS (Outlook 2013). For more information, see Use a non-Microsoft email address at Hotmail or Outlook.com
Email accounts should be configured directly on the smartphone, preferably as an IMAP account so sent items, deleted items, and read state are synced with Outlook (also configured for IMAP).
I want to sync my contacts and calendar back and forth with my Android smartphone. Will Outlook 2010 sync freely with Android?
To sync an Android phone directly with Outlook requires the use of a third party utility. Outlook has no part in the sync process, it only supplies the data you want to sync. Sync software does all of the work.
Your phone manufacturer may include sync software, if not, you'll need to purchase sync software. Companionlink supports most phones. MyPhoneExplorer from the Android App Store will sync calendar and contacts (and more). Mobiledit is another option.
Boppy2010 made this recommendation in OutlookForums for syncing Outlook to Android: "Installing icloud, transferring all my personal appointments to that calendar and then opening that icloud calendar on my iphone. Then I installed an app for $4 to sync the icloud calendar to my android tablet - it's called "smooth sync for cloud calendar". So while not a free solution, considerably cheaper than the suggested alternatives on the interwebs that all involve Google."
Another user recommended Outlook Calendar Transfer Sync.
It is possible to configure a POP3 account in Hotmail, which will allow you to sync over the air with phones that support Exchange ActiveSync (EAS). Sync calendar and contacts using Outlook.com and a non-Microsoft LiveID
Sync droids with Outlook and iCloud
An Android user who is using the iCloud to sync Outlook and an iPad asked if it would be possible to sync their Android smart phone with iCloud. They wanted to avoid installing another sync utility when the iCloud worked great.
There are two Android apps, CardDav-Sync and CalDav-Sync, that can connect to the iCloud calendar and contacts. The iCloud will handle the Outlook-to-iCloud sync and the Droid connects to the iCloud website to sync.
Tools in the Spotlight
CompanionLink keeps Microsoft Outlook and your Android device synchronized. No Exchange Server required. Choose a USB connection or the secure DejaCloud wireless service. Both options include DejaOffice app for Android that provides an Outlook-like experience on your device. The app enables business features like color categories, database encryption and password-lock, integration with Caller ID and voice dial, and much more.
CodeTwo Exchange Folders is an easy to use application which synchronizes contact, calendar and task items from Exchange public and personal folders to mobile phones and back. It allows for central folder and access rights management and is totally secure thanks to Triple DES 168-bit encryption.
Mobile version of CodeTwo Public Folders allows you to access your public Outlook contacts, calendars and tasks on your Android phone or tablet. Requires CodeTwo Public Folders desktop installation.
gSyncit is an Outlook add-in that allows for two-way synchronization between Google and Outlook calendars, contacts, notes, and tasks with your Google account. In addition, gSyncit also supports synchronization between Outlook and Toodledo, Pocket Informant Online, Evernote, Dropbox, Simplenote and Nozbe. Version 3.6 and higher support Windows 8 and Outlook 2013. Supports Outlook 2010 and 2013 64-bit.
MOBILedit! allows you to control your phone from a PC. After downloading MOBILedit! to any computer, you can connect your phone via cable, Bluetooth, or IrDA. You will then be able to view the entire contents of the phone where you can synchronize, add, edit, or delete.
Connect your phone via cable, bluetooth or wifi to manage your Android phone. Direct sync Address Book to Outlook, GMail, Windows contacts, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, and Lotus Notes. Sync Organizer to Outlook, Google, Sunbird, Thunderbird, SeaMonkey, Windows calendar(Vista), Rainlendar, Lotus Notes, and net shared calendars (WebDAV, FTP, local). See wbsite for complete list of features.