We occasionally get questions from users who wonder why Outlook doesn't include calendars for moon phases or sunrise and sunset. While moon phases would be easy to provide, sunrise and sunset times depend very much on where you are located, and it would be difficult for Microsoft to provide these calendars for all but a few cities.
Outlook 2013 and Outlook 2016, along with Outlook on the web for Outlook.com or Office 365 email accounts, provide weather information with links to sunrise, sunset, and moon phase information online.
To see sunrise and sunset times, moon phases and astrological events in Outlook, you'll need to find a calendar you can subscribe to or import, such as Canton Becker’s Full Moon & Astronomy Calendar or UK Astronomical Calendar Calculator. WebCal.fi has sunrise/sunset calendars for locations worldwide (select your country from the menu on the left).
If you follow high and low tides, tidal calendars are available for many locations worldwide at Online Tides and Currents Predictions (Mobile Geographics). These calendars include moon phases, sunrise and sunset times. You can either subscribe to the calendar or download. The events will be on a separate calendar, which can be “turned off” to reduce clutter when not needed, as this calendar has 6 events each day.
For additional calendars, see iCalshare. This site has calendars that work with Outlook or any calendar that supports multi-event iCalendars.
To subscribe to a calendar in Outlook on the web, paste the subscription URL in the Calendar module's Add Calendar > From Internet. Calendars added to Outlook on the web will sync to Outlook. To remove the calendar, right-click on it and choose Delete in Outlook desktop or Remove in Outlook on the web.
Outlook's Weather Events
Although Outlook's Weather feature does not include moon phase or sunrise/sunset times, it includes a link to see more information online where you'll find sunrise & sunset times and the moon phase.
Click on the location name to add or change locations. Although you can only view weather for one location at a time, you can save five locations in the list. Click on the current location name to easily select another locations.
To change the temperature format or disable the weather information in Outlook desktop, open File, Options, Calendar. Weather settings are at the bottom of the dialog.
The dialog is similar in Outlook on the web. Click the arrows to view the weather for another location. Currently, the link doesn't open your location in a web browser (I get NYC weather details). Click Edit locations to add and remove locations, change the temperature display or to stop showing weather on your calendar. (To enable weather, you'll need to go into Calendar Options.)
Hebrew Lunar Calendar
Outlook includes alternate calendars that are based on the lunar year and as long as you know which phase is on which day of the lunar month, you can use one as a secondary calendar, such as the Hebrew Lunar calendar. You won’t have times for the moon phases, just a general idea of what phase the moon is in on that date. (The full moon is on the 15th and the new moon is on the 30th.)
The advantage with this method is that you only have one calendar, although it may look "busy" with the second set of numbers on each day.
Common Worship Almanacs (Simon Kershaw)